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Types Of Chemical Bonds

Types of Chemical Bonds Assignment / Homework Help
With the knowledge of chemical bonding and its importance, let us see in detail the various types of chemical bonds.

The two main varieties of chemical bonds include the ionic bond and the covalent bond. The third variety named as co-ordinate bond has properties that are intermediate to that of ionic bond and the covalent bond. If the bond is formed between the metal ions, it is termed as metallic bond.

Let us see each of these bonds in detail.

Ionic bond: an ionic bond is formed by complete transfer of electrons from an atom having more number of electrons than the required octet configuration in the outer shell to an atom that is deficient in electrons in the outer shell. In technical terms, ionic bond can be said as a bond between electron donating electronegative elements and the electron accepting electropositive elements.

A very good example for a compound with ionic bond is the common salt which is sodium chloride. In this case sodium acts as an electronegative atom with one extra electron and chlorine acts as an electron acceptor with one less electron. These two atoms with opposite charges attract strongly resulting in the formation of ionic bond. After the bond formation, both the atoms have the octet configuration and the compound remains stable.

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Compounds with ionic bond are crystalline in nature. Due to flow of electrons they act as conductors of electricity in molten state. These compounds have high melting and boiling point.

Covalent bond: unlike ionic bond, covalent bond is formed as a result of sharing of electrons between two elements that are deficient in electrons. Both the atoms involved in the bond formation are electronegative in nature. Carbon is a very good example of an element that mainly forms covalent bond.

Here is an example for the formation of oxygen molecule. Here one oxygen atom pairs with the other oxygen atom. Both have four unshared electrons and four shared electrons. Two bonds are formed between them. After bonding both the atoms have eight electrons in the valence shell and remain stable.
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Covalent bond formation involves the participation of half filled orbitals and opposite spin electrons. The covalent bond can be of two forms the sigma (σ) bond and the pie (Π) bond. σ is formed by head on overlapping of the two orbitals while the Π bond is formed by lateral overlapping of the orbtials. Sigma bond is stronger than the pie bond involving the lateral overlapping. This is due to the greater extent of overlapping in case of sigma bond. The head on overlapping also gives directionality to the sigma bond.

Covalent bond is known for its rigidity. This is the reason why carbon compounds are very strong. A very good example of carbon compound that is very strong is diamond.

Co-ordinate bond:

This type of bond involves the participation of an element with lone pair of electrons and the other with incomplete octet. The lone pair of electrons is donated to the one with incomplete octet. This bond is also very rigid and directional. Properties of the compounds with this type of bond show properties that are intermediate to covalent bond and ionic bond.

Here is an example of co-ordinate bond in case of ammonium ion. Electrons are donated from the hydrogen ion to the nitrogen in ammonia. As a result hydrogen acquires a positive charge and co-ordinate bond is formed between ammonia and hydrogen ion forming ammonium.
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Metallic bond:

As indicated by the term, it is formed between metallic ions. In this case the negatively charged electrons hold the positive atom at the center. As there a great number of electrons, they show high conductivity to electricity. They even have high melting and boiling points.

Apart from these main types of bonds there are other types of bonds such as Hydrogen bonding: as indicated by the term, one of the participating elements is hydrogen. Examples of the compounds with this type of bond include the bonding of hydrogen with oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine. As these compounds have high eletronegativity, they form a very strong bond with hydrogen.

Other bonds that are not very strong include the forces between ions and the molecules with more dipole moment and forces between two dipole molecules. These are termed as vanderwall's forces.

Solved problems
  • What is the bond that is formed between elements with high difference in electronegativity?
    • Ionic bond
    • Covalent bond
    • Co-ordinate bond
    • None
    Answer: a
  • Which form of ionic compounds conducts electricity?
    • Crystalline form
    • Molten form
    • Both a and b
    • None
    Answer: b
  • What is favorable condition for covalent bond formation?
    • High difference in electronegativity
    • Very small difference in electronegativity
    Answer: a
  • Among hydrogen bonds and vanderwalls forces which one is stronger?
    • Vanderwalls forces
    • Both are equally strong
    • Hydrogen bond
    • None
    Answer: c
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