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Division Of Labour

Division of Labour and Machinery
Division of labour initially initiated from the division of workers in diverse employment. Now when the manufacture is done on a large scale with the help of heavy machines, it is split up into a number of procedure and many people join to produce an article. It is called the division of labour. For instance, in a large scale readymade garment factory, a man does cutting of cloth, the second man stitches clothes with machines, the third buttons, the fourth, makes folding and packing etc. In the words of Watson, "Manufacture by division of labour consists in splitting up the productive procedure into its component parts."
Forms of Division of Labour
  • Simple Division of Labour - When the manufacture is split into diverse parts and many workers come mutually to finish the work, but the input of each worker cannot be known, it is called simple division of labour.

  • Complex Division of Labour - Where the manufacture is split up into diverse parts and each part is executed by diverse workers who have expert in it, it is called complex division of labour.

  • Occupational Division of Labour - When the manufacture of an article becomes the job opportunity of the worker, it is called job occupational division of labour. Thus the manufacture of diverse goods has shaped diverse job opportunities.

  • Geographical or Territorial Division of Labour - Sometimes due to diverse reasons, the manufacture of goods is focused at an exacting place, state or nation. This specific type of division of labour comes into being when the workers or factories having expert in the manufacture of specific article are found at a specific place. That place may be the most appropriate geographically for the manufacture of that article.
Merits and Demerits

  • Augment in Manufacture - With the adoption of division of labour, the total manufacture augments. Adam Smith has explained in his work the advantage of division of labour.

  • Augment in Efficiency of Labour - With such division, a worker has to do the same work time and again and he gets specialisation in it. It is in this way, the division of labour leads to a great augment in efficiency.

  • Augment in Skill - Division of labour supplies to the development of skill, for the reason that with the recurrence of the same work, he becomes expert in it. This specialisation facilitates him to do the work in the best possible way, which improves his skill.

  • Augment in use of machines - The division of labour is the result of the large scale manufacture, which entails more use of machines. Alternatively, the division of labour augments the opportunity of the use of machines in the small scale manufacture also.

  • Augment in employment Opportunities - Division of labour guides to the diversity of job opportunities which further leads to the employment opportunities. Alternatively, the scale of manufacture being large, the number of employment opportunities also augments.

  • Works according to taste - Workers have their own liking in manufacture. For instance, a person can take up that type of job for which he regards to be the most appropriate and which is in accord with his taste.

  • Work for Disable - Division of labour splits up the manufacture work in small procedures and diverse persons can work at diverse places with the help of machines. Definite machines can be functioned with the help of hands only others with the help of foot as well. Hence disabled persons can also find jobs according to their appropriateness.

  • Best use of Tools - In this system, it is not indispensable to provide each worker with an entire set of tools. He requires a few tools only for the job in which he can make their best use.

  • Best selection of workers - Division of labour helps the employers in the best selection of workers. As the work is divided into diverse parts and each part is taken up by such a worker who is more appropriate for it, the employer can select very easily the man who is best suited for the worker.

  • Saving of Capital and Tools - Division of labour helps in the saving of capital and tools. It is not vital to provide an entire set of tools to every worker. He requires a few tools only for the job he has to do. Thus there is the saving of tools as well as capital.

  • Goods of superior Quality - Division of labour is advantageous in making goods of better quality. When the worker is delegated with the work for which he is best suited he will produce better quality goods.

  • Spirit of Co-operation among workers - Division of labour gives opportunity of working under the same roof and with the co-operation of each other. It also gives rise to the feeling of co-operation and trade unionism in their daily lives.

  • Development of International Trade - Division of labour enhances the tendency of specialisation not only in the workers or industries, but in diverse nations also. On the basis of specialisation, every nation produces only those goods in which it has a relative advantage and imports such goods from those nations which have also greater relative advantage. Hence division of labour is advantageous for the development of overseas trade also.
  • Monotony - Under Division of Labour, a worker has to do the same job time and again for years together. Hence after some time the worker feels uninterested or the work becomes infuriating and tedious. There remains no happiness or pleasure in the job for him.

  • Loss of joy - In the absence of division of labour, he feels a lot of pleasure on the successful completion of his goods. But under division of labour, nobody can claim the credit of making it. The work gives him neither pride nor pleasure. Hence, there is total loss of joy, happiness and interest in the work.

  • Loss of responsibility - Many workers joins hands to produce an article. If the manufacture is not good and adequate none can be held accountable for it. It is normally said that every man's accountability is no man's accountability.

  • Augmentd Dependence - When the manufacture is split up into a number of procedures and each part is performed by diverse workers, it may lead to over dependence. For instance, in the case of a readymade garments factory, if the man cutting cloth is lazy, the work of stitching, buttoning etc. will suffer.

  • Danger of Un-employment - This is another disadvantage. When the worker makes a small part of goods he gets expert in it and he does not have entire knowledge of the manufacture of goods.

  • Danger of Over Manufacture - Over manufacture means the supply of manufacture is relatively more than its demand in the market. For the reason that of the division of labour when manufacture is done on a large scale, the demand for manufacture lags much after its augmented supply. Such circumstances create over manufacture which is very detrimental for the producers as well as for the workers when they become unemployed.

  • Exploitation of labour - Division of labour is apprehensive with large scale manufacture in big factories which are owned by the capitalists. No poor worker can pay for to start his own manufacture. Hence, they have to seek employment in big factories of the capitalists. These employers pay fewer wages to them as matched up to to their marginal productivity.

  • Evils of Factory system - The modern industrial or factory system has been developed as a result of the division of labour. The system further gives rise to the evils like dense population, pollution, bad habits of gambling, alcoholic, low standard of living, poor food clothes and housing etc.

  • Industrial Disputes - The industrial dispute mean strikes by workers, closure of factory etc. due to clashes between the employees and the employers. Division of labour results in the division of society into workers and employers. The employers always try to augment his profits by exploiting or to make them augment their wages.
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