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Characteristics Of Land

Characteristics of Land and Labour - PART I
Meaning of Land

The term land not only means surface of soil but in economics it is often used in a wider sense but it also includes all those natural resources which are the no cost complements of nature. The nature’s complements comprise of the entire irrigation source, woods, peaks, oceans, natural heat and light of sun, climate, weather, downpour etc and these are above the surface of the land. Gold, oils, iron, coal and all the metallic elements etc are from underneath the surface of the land.

Characteristics of Land

Land possesses the following characterises:
  • No-Cost Complement from nature - Man has to make hard work in order to get other factors of production. But to obtain land no human efforts are essential. Land is not the product of human toil. Rather it existed even long before the evolution of man.

  • Fixed Quantity - The total quantity of land does not undergo any variation. It is restricted and cannot be amplified or shrinked with human labour. No amendments can be made in the surface area of land.

  • Land is permanent - All that man makes are non durable and may even go without existence. But land is everlasting. Thus it cannot go out of existence and are not destructible.

  • Land is a Primary Factor of Production - In any type of the process of production, we have to begin with the land. For instance, factories help to provide raw materials and in agriculture crops are produced on land.

  • Land is a passive factor of production - This is for the reason that it cannot produce anything for itself. For instance rice cannot grow on a piece of land by itself. To grow it, man has to cultivate land. Labour is active aspect whereas land is a passive factor of production.

  • Land is Immovable - Land is immovable in the sense that it cannot be transported from one place to another. For instance, no portion of India’s surface can be transported to some other nation.

  • Land has same Original Indestructible Powers - Land possess by nature; indestructible powers which a human being cannot tend to destroy it. The fertility may undoubtedly vary but cannot be abolished as a whole.

  • Land differs in Fertility - Fertility of land differs on different pieces of land. One piece of land may produce more and other less.

  • Supply of land is inelastic - The demand with respect to article may raise or subside with the supply of the article whereas the supply of land does not raise or subside with the demand.

  • Land has many uses - The utilisation and usage of land is very vast such as agriculture, factories and industries can be set up, can build houses, can construct roads and rails etc.
Factors Affecting Productivity of Land

The following factors affect the productivity of land in a nation.
  • Qualities of land - If the land is flat and levelled, it will be more productive. Likewise, land in hilly area is more productive than a land in the desert. Its productivity is also based on the earth and weather conditions. Hence the quality of land helps in productivity.

  • Means of Irrigation - This factor is of more importance than merely depending on the rainfall. The means of irrigation consist of wells, canals, tanks, bore wells etc.

  • Situation of Land - It is always good to have a productive land near the market than to have it in some remote area. The reason is the cost of transportation amidst market and the area of production gets reduced. Hence correct place of location is a factor of productivity land.

  • Proper use of land - Moreover, even though the land may be located near the market, it is the proper utilisation which determines the productivity. For instance, correct cultivation has to be made with the type of soil fertility such as cotton can be cultivated in the black soil. Whereas if black soil is used for cultivation of wheat then its productivity falls.

  • Improvements on land - The productivity has to be enhanced at any cause and improvements made on land such as hedging, consolidation of land holdings, irrigation channels etc, helps in productivity enhancement.

  • Improved methods of cultivation - Improved methods of cultivation include, fertilisers, quality seeds, mechanised ploughs etc are used.

  • Trained Labour - If the labour is efficient in sowing seeds, watering plants, spraying insecticides, cutting crops etc then the productivity of land increases.

  • Ownership of land - If the land is owned, the cultivator takes personal interest in all the activities relating to production. On contrary to this, if the labourers are hired and not having personal interest, then the productivity would be low.

  • Government Policy - The agricultural policy of Law would also affect productivity of land. By giving certain concessions to cultivators, the degree of productivity increases and facilitates the farmers.

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