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Advertising Homework Help

Sales Promotion  Assignment / Homework Help
Advertising is a non-personal form of communication which a seller employs to persuade his target consumers. Through advertisements seller tries to woo his consumers into buying the product or increase usage of product. So through advertising he tries to lure the buyer by highlighting the benefits that can be derived from his product. It is a method of mass promotion as it reaches out to numerous people at once. This method single handedly aims at creating and maintaining a brand name, helping in increasing the sale of existing product/services and spreading awareness about launches of new products/services or changes in the product line. Huge sum of money is spent on advertising.

Market research firm ZenithOptimedia estimates that worldwide spending on advertising exceeds (US) $400 billion. Revenue generated from advertising helps in the existence of radio, television, newspaper etc. There are numerous advertising mediums like human billboards or sign walkers. These are people who hold a sign which carries a promotional message. In earlier days there were town criers for the same purpose. We come across advertisements everywhere from magazines, newspapers, mobile screens to pop-ups on internet.

Some of the major channels of advertising are:

  • Advertising through electronic media (television, internet etc)

  • Television is one of the strongest mediums of promotion. It reaches out to millions of people at once. This explains the high price for commercial airtime during popular T.V shows. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during the Super Bowl football game in the United States has reached US$3 million (as of 2009). Jingles are a common element of T.V commercials. They are catchy and leave a long-lasting impact over the viewer. The words 'information' and 'commercial' is amalgamated to form 'infomercial', another form of advertising over T.V. These commercials are of longer time duration often stretching over 5 minutes. They display the product and explain its features through demonstrations. Feedback from consumers is also included to persuade the viewer into buying the product. Toll-free numbers are displayed through which the consumer can easily buy the product and get it home delivered.

    Advertisement has found a new medium in internet. Advertisements are sent via e-mails to target customers to convince them into buying their product or continue using their products. Along with e-mail marketing there has also been an increase in e-mail spam or junk e-mail. They are unsolicited identical e-mail sent to various people.

    Advertisements appear on social-networking sites like Facebook, orkut etc. The advertiser has access to information like age, sex, preferences etc. from user profiles. This helps him in finding their target audience. The Facebook beacon project is based on direct marketing based on your friend's activities.

    Every time a facebook user buys a product online all his friends are notified about his activity. His friends might be tempted to buy the same product and they might actually go ahead and buy it.

    Advertising via mobiles have a far greater penetration power that internet advertising. Mobile ads are dominated by SMS (Short Message Service) advertising and MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) advertising. Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Cadbury, Sony, Johnson and Johnson have tried advertising through SMS. Pepsi conducted a "We'll take you there" campaign in early 2002 in Australia. Consumers were asked to SMS a unique code printed on the Pepsi can to a specified number and thereby participate in a lucky draw. 79% of the total responses received were sent via SMS. In U.S a market survey of 1000 people was conducted by a company named The Mobile Channel on acceptance of mobile advertising. The result showed that 94% users gave SMS advertising a thumbs-up. However like spam e-mails, spam SMS and MMS have created a nuisance and botheration for mobile users.

    Advertising via Radio is another channel of advertising. Radio reaches more than 228 million Americans in a week. It is an effective medium which is also low on cost. Like television radio too has mass appeal. Radio advertising often evokes an emotional reaction from the listener. Listeners are more likely to buy a product if they hear about it on their favorite radio channel. Often DJs promote a certain product over the radio. Listeners are often emotionally attached to a DJ and trust him enough to go ahead and buy the product. Radio faces stiff competition from other electronic media like T.V, internet etc. Radio being mobile is another advantage, people can listen to it while they are driving or even at work.

    Limitation of radio advertising is that it is restricted to sound. However many believe that this is more of an advantage than a limitation.

    The number of ads on radio has increased incredibly and this often irritates listeners who choose to switch channels or turn off the radio set completely. This excessive broadcast of ads is also known as commercial clutter.

  • Advertising through print media (newspapers, magazines, brochures etc.)

  • Advertising through newspapers, magazines, brochures is also known as press advertising. Classified advertising is common to newspapers. A small space can be bought for promotional purpose in this newspaper section. This ad can be as small as type of product for sale and the contact number for more information. It may have details of product but generally classified ads don't carry pictures or graphics

  • Billboard Advertising

  • Billboards are huge structures located usually on roadsides with advertisements to catch the attention of passing traffic. Billboards are not restricted to roads they may be put up at any place with large viewership like shopping malls, railway stations etc.

  • Covert Advertising

  • Covert advertising is also known as guerrilla advertising. Examples of covert advertising can be found in movies like Minority Report. Tom Cruise carries a cell phone with Nokia written on it. Watch carries Bulgari logo. In the movie Robot, the protagonist Will Smith promotes Converse shoes.

  • Celebrity Branding/ Advertisement

  • Often celebrities appear on television promoting a product or service. They attend PR events supporting a charity or endorsing a product often using their name as a brand. Many celebrities now have their own line of product specially clothes and fragrances.

    Celebrities might appear in ads or give voice-overs like Sean Connery voice over for Level3 Communications. There is however risks involved in involving celebrities as brand endorsers. A mistake committed by the celebrity can be detrimental for the brand image he is endorsing. For instance eight times gold medal winner at Olympics swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated after he was photographed smoking marijuana.

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