Planning And Control For Job Shop Production
Job shops perform an array of jobs and each job is different. In job shop production predictions of demand for products is not possible. In a job shop different jobs are performed with a prescribed set of operations and the time taken by each operation. The equipment for job shop productions are divided for use in different departments. The requirement of each machine is different based on the operation to be performed for a particular job. The job shop is waiting line system in the respect that when a job is finished from one machine, it waits in line to enter the next machine because there are earlier jobs in line too. Vice versa, the machines also wait for jobs while running idly. So, a proper system of planning and control has to be in place for optimizing the job shop production.
Aspects of job shop production:
- The proper sequencing and prioritizing is must for such production to avoid confusion and wastage.
- The scheduling should be done based on the estimated time taken by each job.
- The running time of a machine should be calculated while it is performing an operation
The performance of a facility is measured by following standards:
- The average time taken by each job
- The total processing time
- The mean of the number of jobs completed before stipulated time and the jobs completed after the stipulated time
- The mean waiting time of each job
- The average of number of jobs to be done in a unit
The factors affecting a job shop unit are as follows:
- Total number of jobs to be done
- Total number of machines required
- Manufacturing facilities
- Evaluation and assessment of efficiency of men and machines
Job shop productions: case 1
First we will study the case where n number of jobs are performed by a single machine. In such a case prioritizing and scheduling is very important because the jobs are waiting inline to be completed. The objective is to improve the average idle time, waiting time, the work in process time. The shortest processing time (SPT) is aimed for in a job shop production.
Job shop production: case 2
In such a scenario, n number of jobs are performed by two machines M1 and M2. The processing time on both the machines is calculated. The minimum time to complete a job is also stipulated. Then a sequence is worked out to line the jobs on both the machines in such a way that the target of maximum production in minimum time is achieved.
Prioritizing rules for job shops:
The job which has the shortest processing time is selected. Manufacturers may also put the job which has the earliest delivery due date first in line. First come first serve rule may be applied to cut any slack or wastage. So it depends on the manufacturer's priorities and the master schedule.
Examples of job shop productions:
They include paint shops, machine tool factories and specialty restaurants. Given below is a brief outline of the paint manufacturing process, In this, paints are manufactured in a variety of colors and even patterns and the machines used are the same for all the jobs which are done.
- First a color pigment is selected.
- Then a brightener is added to it to bring out its texture.
- Next, binder and plasticizer is added which will make it stick to the wall.
- Lastly, additives and water is added to improve its consistency
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Other topics under Production Planning:
- Capacity Planning
- Control of Production
- Economic Size Industrial Unit
- Facility Layout
- Gantt Chart
- Planning & Control of Batch Production
- Planning & Control of Mass Production
- Planning and Control of Projects
- Procedure of Production Planning & Control
- Project Scheduling
- Purpose of Production, Planning and Control
- Routing, Routing Sheet